Worlds migrations


The phenomenon of migration has been known for centuries. Humans have always changed their place of residence for various reasons. Therefore, several types of migrations can be distinguished. First, emigration - leave a permanent place of residence and immigration - coming to a new country. Apart from those kinds of migration there are also re-emigration and repatriation. Re-emigration is a return to the country from which people had emigrated. On the contrary, repatriation concerns people who came back to the country after being deported or exiled during the war.


There are many causes of migration. The most common are the economic ones. Looking for job in a richer country is a trend that can be now observed in Western Europe. Formerly North America experienced the influx of immigrants. Other reasons are connected with politics. Population leaves the country as a result of ongoing hostilities. Currently, this type of migration occurs in the Middle East and Afghanistan. Migration may also have its reason in religion, among others pilgrimages to places of religious cult. Social factor determining migration can be studying abroad or marrying a citizen from another country. While short-term migration are mainly related to tourism, those migrations are for entertainment and cultural purposes. People can be forced to migration because of urgent situations, such as natural disasters.

Statistics say that immigrants constitute over 3% of the total population. The annual survey conducted by the UN and the International Organization for Migration (IOM), indicate that this number will continue to grow. This is due to ease movement of people and the blurring of borders between countries, especially in the case of the European Union. Change of residence does not require complicated procedures, that is why the decision to move is much easier. Migration is a permanent and lasting part of the modern economy, and we should reckon with it.

Assessment of migration is extremely difficult. Its disadvantage is the accumulation of ethnic and cultural conflicts as a result of mixing different nations in one area. The advantage, however, is the inflow of new workers, so that the economy can grow. Reconciling these factors requires major investments connected with providing immigrants with proper care and life conditions. It is possible, and brings measurable profits. Examples are Scandinavian countries, which decided to open borders and currently lead the rankings of the lowest unemployment rates.